意大利Alto Adige名庄Alois Lageder采用新式轻修剪法

编译/杨慧

随着冬天接近尾声,我们已经完成了葡萄藤的修剪。现在可以等待见证它的生长,不久葡萄藤就要开始发芽,充分展现植物的生命力。除了适当的呵护和温柔的照顾,专业的藤蔓修剪对葡萄短期和长期的茁壮成长都有重大影响。

现代葡萄栽培需要修剪,然而,这是对自然过程的干预。我们每年都重复修剪的动作,在植物身上留下新的创伤。修剪的越深入,留下的伤口越大,也会让真菌有机可乘,找到可立足之地。真菌会引发葡萄树病害,对植物造成持久的损伤。

几年前,我结识了Marco Simonit和PierpaoloSirch,他们是弗留利地区的葡萄修剪专家,也是意大利葡萄修剪学校的创始人。他们启用了一种古老的方法,经过20年的试验,已经开始向葡萄酒酿造坊间传播。这种方法的目标是尽可能轻柔地进行修剪。咨询中他们解释说,必须要考虑到每个葡萄园的特点和所采用的不同种植技术。从一开始他们就说服了我本人相信这种做法的益处。在经过初次会面,前期的培训研讨会,特别是和他们的对话后,我的种植团队也开始肯定我们应该坚持已经启用的新方法,而且应该和两位专家一起推进项目。

轻修剪的目的是通过微小而精确的剪口,尽可能减少对葡萄藤的伤害,从而也使得真菌和细菌无处扎根。修剪时,要注意集中在愈合力较强的嫩梢上。这样可以保持葡萄的生命力和健康。换个角度,如果修剪已经有些年头的木质部,植物就会受到较为严重的伤害,也会造成树干中的维管组织坏死。这种方法的另一个重要目标是减少后续工序的负担,比如此后年头中在移除嫩枝和落叶要费的功夫。

当然,正确地实施这种方法需要很长时间。因为它需要经过数年逐步发展。这个过程中人和社会也构成相当重要的部分。负责修剪的工人逐步提升意识,认识到需要有针对性地对待每一株葡萄藤,仔细观察它们,并根据其所处的特定条件进行修剪。工人之间分享各自的经验和建议,由此,在葡萄园中针对栽培葡萄的合适方法进行交流。

优秀的酿酒师应该追求确保每一棵植物都能持久健康生长的目标。

这符合可持续发展的原则,反映了葡萄的需求,也满足高品质的葡萄酒的先决条件。

As winter draws to a conclusion, we have completed the pruning of the grape vines. We can now look forward to watching as the vines develop and soon begin sprouting, which tells us a lot about the plants’ vitality. In addition to proper care and gentle treatment, the expert pruning of the vines has a major influence upon the growth of the grapes and their long-term health.Modern viticulture requires pruning. Nevertheless, it represents an intervention in natural processes. We repeat this measure every year and inflict new wounds upon our plants. The more invasive the pruning, the greater the wounds. This action also creates places where fungi can find a foothold. Fungi can trigger wood diseases and result in long-term damage to the plants.
Marco Simonit and Pierpaolo Sirch are two vinedressers from the Friuli region and the founders of theScuola Italiana di Potatura della Vite, which I first became acquainted with years ago. They have revived an old method and – after 20 years of testing – have begun passing it on to winemakers. The goal is to carry out this intervention as gently as possible. During their consultations, they explain that the individual characteristics of the vineyards and the different growing techniques employed must be taken into consideration. I was convinced of the benefits of their method from the very beginning. After our first meetings, initial training seminars, and especially in talks with them, my agricultural team was soon convinced that we should continue the new path we had embarked upon and that we shouldlaunch the project with Simonit&Sirch.
Soft pruning aims, by means of minimal and exact cuts, to injure the grapevines as little as possible and thus to afford fungi and bacteria no opportunity to obtain a foothold. When pruning, attention focuses on young shoots, which heal better. The vitality and health of the vines is thus maintained. When cutting woody parts that have already reached several years of age, on the other hand, the plants are more seriously injured, and vascular tissue deep within the stem dies. Another important goal of this method is to reduce the effort required for subsequent work steps such as the removal of shoots and defoliation in later years.

Of course, much time is required to properly implement this method. That’s because this is a process that develops over a period of several years. This process also has a significant social component. The workers responsible for pruning gain a greater awareness of the need to deal with every individual grape vine, to observe them, and to prune in accordance with the given circumstances. They share their experience with each other and give each other advice: Thus, a conversation on the proper cultivation of the grapes is conducted in the vineyard.

Every good winemaker should aim to ensure the long and healthy life of each plant.
This conforms to the principle of sustainability, it reflects the needs of the grapevines, and it fulfills the prerequisites for high-quality wines.